Sunday, 10 January 2016 12:25

Native Orchids of Napa County

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Calypso bulbosa

("Fairy slipper", "Fairyslipper orchid")

 

It has a small pink, purple, pinkish-purple, or red flower accented with a white lip, darker purple spottings, and yellow beard.  The genus Calypso takes its name from the Greek signifying concealment, as they tend to favor sheltered areas on conifer forest floors. The specific epithet, bulbosa, refers to the bulb-like corms.

The Thompson River Indians of British Columbia used it as a treatment for mild epilepsy.


 

Bloom Period:

March - June

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Yellow Pine Forest, wetland-riparian in sheltered light conditions.

More information:
 

 

Corallorhiza  maculata

("Spotted coralroot", "Summer coral root")

 

Corallorhiza maculata is a myco-heterotroph; it lacks chlorophyll and gets food by parasitizing the mycelium of fungi in the family Russulaceae. The rhizome and lower stem are often knotted into branched coral shapes. The stem is usually red or brown in color, but occasionally comes in a light yellow or cream color. There are no leaves and no photosynthetic green tissues. The stems bear dark red scales and intricate orchid flowers.

Corallorhiza maculata flowers are small and emerge regularly from all sides of the stem. The sepals are dark red or brown tinged with purple, long and pointed. The side petals are reddish, and the lip petal is bright clean white with deep red spots. It is usually lobed or toothed on the side and 7–10 mm. In some varieties, the lip is plain white without spots.

Several Native American groups historically used the orchid's stems dried and brewed as a tea for such maladies as colds, pneumonia, and skin irritation.

 

Bloom Period:

May - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

Found from Canada south to Guatemala as a medium to large sized, cool to cold growing, mycoheterotrophic, leafless terrestrial, blooming on an erect, 6 to 30" [15 to 75 cm] long, racemose, many [to 50] flowered, reddish inflorescence arising out of the ground occuring mostly in the summer through fall and is found in moist shady woods on rocky slopes in rich decaying humus and rotten leaves up to elevations of 3700 meters. It's common name is the Spotted Coral-root.

 

Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata

("Summer coral root")

 

Habit: Plant 17--55 cm. Stem: red to yellow-brown to yellow.

 

Flower: sepals 5.5--10 mm, lower spreading, color generally same as stems, mentum 2.5 mm; lateral petals generally like sepals, yellow-brown or deep pink t red, dark-spotted or not, lip 5--7 mm, with 2 rounded lobes laterally, white, unspotted or generally red- to purple-spotted, tip crenate or toothed; column 3--5 mm, +- yellow, purple-spotted.

 

Fruit: 15--20 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.

 

Note: Where together, Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis typically flowers 2--4 weeks earlier than Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata.

 

Bloom Period:

May - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

 

 
More information:
 

 

 

Cypripedium montanum

("Mountain lady's slipper")

Cypripedium montanum, sometimes called "Mountain Lady's Slipper," grows to be up to 70 cm tall. The stem has alternating, plicate leaves. Atop the stem sits one to three large flowers. The sepals and petals tend to be maroon-brown while the pouch is white. This species is a close ally of Cypripedium parviflorum, so they appear to be very similar with the main difference being pouch color. 

 

 

Bloom Period:

March - August

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

A medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that is found in the western US north to southern Alaska in dappled shade of coniferous forests at elevations around 1500 meters with ovate-lanceolate, plicate, alternate leaves and blooms in the spring and early summer on a slender, terminal inflorescence that carries up to 3 distant flowers subtended by a leafy bract.  

 

Epipactis gigantea

("Giant helleborine", "Stream orchid")

This wildflower is native to western North America from British Columbia to central Mexico. This is one of the most abundant orchids of the Pacific coast of North America

Epipactis gigantea is an erect perennial reaching anywhere from 30 centimeters to one meter in height. Its stems have prominently-veined, wide or narrow lance-shaped leaves 5 to 15 centimeters long and inflorescences of two or three showy orchids near the top. Each flower has three straight sepals which are light brownish or greenish with darker veining, each one to two centimeters long. The two top petals are similar in shape and reddish-brown with purple veins. The lowest petal is cup-shaped with a pointed, tongue-like protuberance and is brighter red-brown and more starkly veined, often with areas of yellow. The fruit is a hanging capsule 2 or 3 centimeters long which contains thousands of tiny seeds. This plant grows in wet areas in a variety of habitats, including riverbanks, hot springs, and meadows at elevations between 2800 and 8000 feet. Unlike some of its relatives, this species is an autotroph. A distinctive race with burgundy colored foliage is known from The Cedars in Sonoma County California, an area of serpentine rock, and it is called forma rubrifolia (P M Brown).

Epipactis gigantea is cultivated in the specialty horticulture trade and available as a non-wild collected propagated ornamental plant for: natural landscape, traditional, native plant, and habitat gardens. A maroon leaved (forma rubrifolia) cultivar is also grown, called 'Serpentine Night'. 

Used as a treatment for insanity and very severe cases of sickness by the west cosat indians 

See SFGate artical.

Bloom Period:

May - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

Found in the US, Canada and Mexico as a medium to large sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial that is found at altitudes of 150 to 500 meters along rivers and streams, seepage banks and springs with short rhizomes and a tall stem carrying 4 to 12, ovate-lanceolate, acute leaves that blooms in the spring and summer on a terminal, laxly few to several flowered raceme with longlasting flowers and that has leafy, lanceolate bracts and a fuzzy rachis.  

 

 

Piperia elegans

(syn. Platanthera elegans)

("Coast piperia", "Elegant piperia")

This is a showy flowering plant native to western North America. It grows from a caudex tuber and sends up a thick stem just under a meter in maximum height. The stem is topped with a cylindrical spike inflorescence of densely packed flowers with curving white to greenish-yellow petals. Coastal individuals are noticeably thicker and have more flowers than those that grow further inland; it is uncertain if these are variants, subspecies, or even separate species. They are both currently treated as P. elegans. Other species of Piperia, notably the endangered species P. yadonii are quite similar in appearance to some populations of this species.  

Bloom Period:

July - October

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

 

 
More information:

 

 

Piperia elongata

(syn. Platanthera elongata)

("Dense flowered rein orchid", "Denseflower rein orchid")

This orchid grows erect to about 1.3 meters in maximum height from a bulbous caudex, its stem becoming narrow toward the tip. The basal leaves are up to 30 centimeters long by 6.5 wide. Leaves higher on the stem are much reduced. The upper part of the stem is a spikelike inflorescence of many small green flowers which are sometimes densely arranged. They are sometimes faintly and variably fragrant in the evenings. The spur on each flower may be up to 1.5 centimeters long.  

Bloom Period:

May - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

It is native to western North America from British Columbia and Montana to southern California, where it grows in mountain forests and scrub habitat. 

 
More information:

 

 

Piperia leptopetala

(syn. Platanthera leptopetala)

("Rein orchid")

This orchid grows erect to about 70 centimeters in maximum height from a bulbous caudex. The basal leaves are up to 15 centimeters long by 3 wide. Leaves higher on the stem are much reduced. The upper part of the stem is a spikelike inflorescence of many delicate, translucent green flowers which are sometimes fragrant in the evenings. This rein orchid has narrower petals than those of other species, giving the inflorescence a lacy look, as the common names suggest.  

Bloom Period:

May - June

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

It is native to the west coast of the United States from Washington to California, where it grows in scrub and woodland habitat in mountains and foothills.

 
More information:

 

 

Piperia transversa

(syn. Platanthera transversa)

("Mountain piperia", "Royal rein orchid") 

This orchid grows erect to about 55 centimeters in maximum height from a bulbous caudex. The basal leaves are up to 19 centimeters long by 4 wide. Leaves higher on the stem are much reduced. 

The upper part of the stem is a spikelike inflorescence of many flowers which are white or yellowish with green veining. They are fragrant in the evenings and are said to have a scent like cloves. 

Bloom Period:

June - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California, where it can be found in forest, woodland, chaparral, and scrub habitat, often in dry areas.

 
More information:

 

 

Piperia unalascensis

(syn. Platanthera unalascensis)

("Alaska piperia", "Alaska rein orchid")

Piperia unalascensis is a species of orchid known by the common names slender-spire orchid, Alaska piperia and Alaska rein orchid. It is native to much of western North America from Alaska to the southwestern United States, as well as eastern sections of Canada and the Great Lakes. 

Bloom Period:

April - July

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

It can be found in forest, woodland, and scrub habitat, often in dry areas. This orchid grows erect to about 70 centimeters in maximum height. The basal leaves are up to 15 centimeters long by 4 wide. Leaves higher on the stem are much reduced. The upper part of the stem is a slender, spikelike inflorescence of widely spaced translucent green flowers. The flowers are fragrant in the evenings, with a musky, soapy, or honeylike scent. The plant is variable in size, stem thickness, density of inflorescence, petal shape, and scent. Plants of the coast ranges and the Pacific Northwest are stouter and have broader sepals and petals than do interior and montane forms.

 
More information:
 

 

 

Spiranthes porrifolia

("Creamy ladies tresses", "Creamy ladies' tresses")

 

Found in the western Pacific coast of America and Canada as a terrestrial at elevations around 1000 to 2000 meters in seepage slopes, along streams and in boggy ravines in mountains as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial with 3 to 4, basal and on the lower portion of the stem, elliptic-lanceolate, grading to bracts above leaves that can be or not present at blooming which occurs in the spring and summer on an erect, a many flowered inflorescence that is held way above the onion like leaves and has the fragrant flowers in a dense tight spiral.  

Bloom Period:

June - August

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

It can be found in moist and wet habitat, such as mountain meadows, freshwater swamps, and riverbanks. It is a perennial herb growing from a tuberous root system, reaching a maximum height around 60 centimeters. The leaves are mainly located around the base of the erect stem. They are linear or lance-shaped, or sometimes nearly oval. The top of the stem is occupied by the inflorescence, a dense spiral of many flowers. Each flower is somewhat tubular, with an upper and lower lip, and cream to yellowish in color. 

 

 

Spiranthes romanzoffiana

("Hooded ladies tresses", "Hooded ladies' tresses")

Spiranthes romanzoffiana, commonly called Hooded Ladies' Tresses, is broadly distributed across Canada, the western and central U.S., including Alaska, parts of New England and the northern mid-Atlantic, as well as Ireland and England. It produces 2-5 basal or lower stem leaves which may persist through flowering. The inflorescence of up to 40 small white flowers is arranged in a tight spiral, and may be covered in small hairs. The lateral petals are connivent with the dorsal sepal, forming a hood over the column. The labellum has rounded edges and is contracted in the middle which distinguishes this orchid from Spiranthes cernua. It can be found in open, wet areas, including moist meadows, prairies, fens, marshes, and bogs. The hybrid between this orchid and Spiranthes lacera var. lacera is named S. × simpsonii. 

 

Bloom Period:

July - August

Found in:

Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties

Irish lady’s tresses is a plant of wet marshy ground, wet meadows near water bodies and bogs. It prefers nutrient poor soil, especially that which is flooded at intervals, and often occurs on grazed meadows in open sedge-rich lawns. 

 

Read 3686 times Last modified on Sunday, 10 January 2016 21:21
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