CATASETUM

kat-ah-SEE-tum

From the Greek kata (down) and Latin seta ( bristle)

This unusual group of orchids offers fascinating, waxy flowers that often have the peculiar habit of discharging their pollen masses (pollinia) onto pollinators. Almost always deciduous, the pseudobulbous plants have strict growing and resting periods. Most flower before entering a dormant period when they drop their leaves.

 

The following is from Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia

There are 70 species spread from Mexico to Argentina and the West Indies of this deciduous fleshy pseudobulb with eight to twelve leaves. The inflorescence starts at the base of the pseudobulbs and may be erect or pendulous with male or female flowers . The male flowers are characterized with the ability to eject their pollina up to eight feet from the plant.  The female flower can be seen with the male pollina in it's stigmatic cavity [see#1 in photo]. The male flower in the upper right of the picture shows that it has ejected it's pollina [see#2 in photo], first in that it is missing it's pollinarium and second by the limp colorless look of the flower in general as compared to the flower below [see #3 in photo]

The next photo shows a dried female flower [See #2 in photo] 1 day after a successful encounter with a male pollina, next to a non impregnated flower [see#3 in photo]. Note the swollen ovary [#1 in the photo] which is actually the stem of the flower. Here is where the seed will develop and in 3-4 months the seed will be mature and the capsule will dry and break open spilling the seed to the wind.

SOURCE: Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia

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CULTURE

Learn more about the growing and appreciating of the Catesetum from various sources.

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SPECIES

Species, by definition, are produced in nature.  Orchid species are a bit more difficult to tend to as they are accustomed to specific conditions and much less forgiving than hybrids.

 

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HYBRIDS

The vast majority of plants for sale are hybrids that some breeder dreamed up and made a reality. The resulting progeny from the union of two different species (known as a primary hybrid), or of a species and a hybrid, or of two hybrids (known as a complex hybrid). Typically easier to tend to as growing conditions along with the appearance of the flower are considered in the hybrid process.

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(Catasetum Portagee Star 'Brian Lawson's Sunrise' HCC/AOS x Catasetum Melana Davison 'Fox Tail')

 

The flower quality of Portagee Star is surprisingly nice: the shape is full, the lip is flat and the color is an attractive yellow with a bit of red.  Melana Davison (Catasetum Penang x Catasetum denticulatum) has been a landmark hybrid in the breeding of reduced plant size while maintaining excellent flower size, shape, color, and count.  It also has been recognized with 7 AM/AOS awards!  The mostly red flowers of 'Fox Tail' have an excellent presentation; the flower count is very high.  Here we have crossed the standard-sized Portagee Star onto a first generation mini-Catasetum Melana Davison.  These plants will still be small growers and stay under 8” tall.  I expect excellent flower form, increased bloom size and easy culture.  These should produce many-flowered inflorescences 2-3 times a season.  Flower color will vary from light yellow to dark red and everything in-between. (Description and photos courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids)

 

Photo right:  Catasetum Portagee Star 'Brian Lawson's Sunrise' HCC/AOS

Photo Left:  Catasetum Melana Davison 'Fox Tail'

 

This is an as of yet registered hybrid.  SVO item 7311

   

  

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(Catasetum saccatum 'Dark Warrior' x Catasetum saccatum 'Brooklyn Botanic Garden' FCC/AOS)

 

This is one of my favorite species, and I'm always happy when these plants flower 3-4 times a season, with inflorescences up to 3' long holding 25 or more well-arranged flowers!!!  A bit of history: a while back I made a sibling cross of saccatum ('SVO' x 'SVO II'), and the best plant from that cross was named 'Dark Wonder' for its very dark rich burgundy petals and sepals.  This pairing might very well produce the best group of saccatum seen; it sure has the genetic potential!

 

Photo Left:  Catasetum saccatum 'Dark Wonder'

 

Photo Right:  Catasetum saccatum 'Brooklyn Botanic Garden' FCC/AOS

 

Description and photos courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids

 

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(Catasetum tenebrosum 'Ed#2' AM/AOS   x   Catasetum Double Down 'BPYL')

 

This type of breeding has been in the planning for many years.  I have always wanted to breed Catasetums with dark burgundy segments and bright yellow lips.  Finally, here it is!  Catasetum tenebrosum is a showy species and the cultivar used here has the best color and shape, with dark petals and sepals and a contrasting chartreuse lip. One of the important characteristics of tenebrosum as a parent is its early blooming.  This is one of the first Catasetums to flower each season, and the bloom spikes develop with the new growths, traits that are useful in developing early-to-bloom hybrids. Catasetum Double Down (Chuck Taylor x kleberianum) produced many plants that flowered with dark segments and yellow lips.  The cultivar used here, 'BPYL,' stands for 'Black Petals Yellow Lip,' and the flowers have great color contrast on plants that bloom 3-4 times a year. The addition of tenebrosum with its early flowering habit and complementary flower colors should result in plants that bloom early, mid, and late season with very dark segments and bright yellow lips.

Description and photos couertsy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids

 

Thursday, 03 December 2015 22:28

Additional Information

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A collection of Catasetum related links to items of interest found on the Internet, that do not fit in any of the three main catagories.

Thursday, 14 February 2019 22:36

Catasetuim Melana Davision

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Catasetuim Melana Davison

Catasetum denticulatum × Catasetum Penang

(Catasetum denticulatum 'SVO' AM/AOS  x  Catasetum Penang 'Sweet Heart')

This grex has produced a variety of eye-catching flower colors, from solid deep burgundy to white blotched burgundy and white with fine red spotting.  This is a new mini-Catasetum, with mature plants only 5” tall thanks to the influence of Catasetum denticulatum.  Expect 15-20 flowers, 2-3 times per season.  It's always interesting to see the effect of reciprocal breeding on the flower quality, and SVO 5995 is the reciprocal.  This was SVO item 5001

 

Above  Catasetum denticulatum 'SVO' AM/AOS

 

Right:  Catasetum Penang 'Sweet Heart' 

 

Below is the reverse breeding (or reciprocal breeding) of the above.

 

Catasetum Melana Davison

(Catasetum Penang 'Sweetheart'  x  Catasetum denticulatum 'SVO' AM/AOS)

This grex has produced a variety of eye-catching flower colors, from solid deep burgundy to white blotched burgundy and white with fine red spotting.  This is a new mini-Catasetum, with mature plants only 5” tall thanks to the influence of Catasetum denticulatum.  Expect 15-20 flowers, 2-3 times per season.  It's always interesting to see the effect of reciprocal breeding on the flower quality, and SVO 5001 is the reciprocal.  This was SVO item 5995

 

Above  Catasetum denticulatum 'SVO' AM/AOS

 

Right:  Catasetum Penang 'Sweet Heart'

 

Thursday, 03 December 2015 16:37

Catasetum (From Wikipedia)

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Catasetum, abbreviated as Ctsm in horticultural trade, is a genus of showy epiphytic Orchids, family (Orchidaceae), subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Catasetinae, with 166 species, many of which are highly prized in horticulture.

Species of the genus Catasetum occur from Mexico to Argentina, including much of Central America, the West Indies, and South America. The largest number of species is in Brazil.

Tuesday, 12 February 2019 20:53

Catasetum Black Knight

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Catasetum Black Knight

Catasetum expansum  ×  Catasetum tenebrosum

 

 

 

Tuesday, 12 February 2019 16:30

Catasetum Chuck Taylor

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Catasetum Chuck Taylor

Catasetum Portagee Star ‘Jamie Lawson’s Sunrise’ HCC/AOS × Catasetum denticulatum ‘SVO’ AM/AOS

Catasetum Portagee Star (Catasetum expansum x Catasetum Black Knight) interestingly this grex has the 3 same parental species as the famous Catasetum Donna Wise, pileatum, expansum, and tenebrosum. 'Brian Lawson's Sunrise' carries up to 15 flowers in shades of yellow and burgundy, and is very attractive. The denticulatum has a nice yellow lip, 25 flowers and is a small growing plant. Here we are breeding in a new direction for reduced plant size while keeping good flower color and high flower count.  This direction in breeding for small growing plants has been spectacular.  SVO Item 2211

 

Description and photo courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids

 

 

Catasetum denticulatum

 

Common Name The Small-Toothed Catasetum

Flower Size 1 3/5" [4 cm]

Found in Rondonia state of Brazil in Amazonian rain forest at elevations of 100 to 300 meters as a medium sized, hot growing epiphyte with clustered fusiform pseudobulbs that are enveloped basally by several deciduous leaf sheaths and carries 5 to 10, plicate, arched, oblanceolate leaves that blooms in the late spring and early summer on a basal, erect to suberect, several flowered, racemose inflorescence arising basally on a new pseudobulb lead.

This species needs a winter rest and enjoys moderate shade, even watering and fertilizing through its growth period

This species is similar to C cirrhaeoides and C pulchrum but differs in having the denticulate margins and the shallow concavity in the lip while the others have entire margins and a lip with a deep saccate hollow.

 

Tuesday, 12 February 2019 15:29

Catasetum Double Down

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Catasetum Double Down

Catasetum Chuck Taylor 'Wow' x  Catasetum kieberianum 'SVO'

Catasetum Chuck Taylor is an excellent mini-Catasetum, with rich burgundy petals and sepals, and a contrasting yellow lip.  It's just beautiful!  Catasetum kleberianum is a great mini-Catasetum species, producing strikingly-colored flowers that combine dark barring on the petals and sepals with a bright yellow lips.  As a bonus, it also carries 15 or more flowers per stem.  These will be mini-Catasetums with bright yellow lips, and the petals and sepals will have dark bars, some of which will be solid burgundy!  This is one of those 'not to be missed' mini-Catasetums.  (SVO 7312)

 

Description and photo courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids

 

 

 

Catasetum expansum

 

Common Name The Expansive Catasetum

Flower Size 3" [7.5 cm]

 

A large sized, showy, hot to cool growing epiphytic Catasetum from northeastern Ecuador in dry forest at elevations of 20 to 1500 meters with spindle shaped pseudubulbs carrying several deciduous, plicate, lanceolate leaves that can bloom from May until December on a basal, 12" [30 cm] long, several [6] flowered arching raceme arising on a newly forming pseudobulb carying either male or female flowers.

The flowers can be found in many colors including yellow, green, white and sometimes with maroon spots.

Synonyms Catasetum expansum var sodiroi [Schlechter] Mansf.; Catachaetum recurvatum Link 1844; Catasetum cliftonii R.H. Torr. 1911; Catasetum platyglossum Schltr. 1916; Catasetum recurvatum Link 1844; Catasetum sodiroi Schltr. 1921

 

Sourec:  http://www.orchidspecies.com/catasetumexpansum.htm

Photos by © Danny Lentz plant grown by the Atlanta Botanical Garden

 

 

 

Catasetum fimbriatum

 

Common Name The Fringed Catasetum

Flower Size 1 1/2" [3.75 cm]

 

Found in Guyana?, Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina in dry lowland regions on trunks of palm trees at altitudes of 400 to 500 meters as a large sized, hot to warm growing epiphyte with conical-fusiform, several-noded pseudobulbs subtended by several leaf bearing sheaths carrying several, oblong-ligulate, submembraneous, acute leaves that blooms in the late spring and summer on a basal, pendant, 1 1/2' [45 cm] long, racemose inflorescence arising on a mature pseudobulb and has many [7 to 15] loosely arranged, fleshy, very spicily fragrant flowers.

 

Source:  http://www.orchidspecies.com/catfimbriatum.htm

 

Last modified on Thursday, 14 February 2019 01:24
Friday, 15 February 2019 03:11

Catasetum João Stivalli

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Catasetum João Stivalli

Catasetum Mary Spencer × Catasetum pileatumt

Catasetum João Stivalli

J.Stivali 1995 - registered (RHS)

Catasetum Mary Spencer × Catasetum pileatum

 

Sunday, 10 February 2019 16:55

Catasetum John C. Burchett 'Ursa Major' FCC/AOS

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Catasetum John C. Burchett 'Ursa Major' FCC/AOS

Catasetum João Stivalli × Catasetum Susan Fuchs

Catasetum John C. Burchett

R.Kowalczyk 2007 - registered (RHS)

Catasetum João Stivalli × Catasetum Susan Fuchs

 

Photo:  Catasetum John C. Burchett 'Ursa Major' FCC/AOS

(Courtesy of Fred CLarke, Sunset Valley Orchids)

 

 

Catasetum kleberianum

 

Common Name Kleber's Catasetum [Kleber de Lacerda Jr., Brazilian discoverer of species current]

 

Flower Size 1 5/8" [4 cm]

 

This is a medium sized, warm growing Brazilian epiphytic species from Amazonas state and grows on trees in flooded forests along the Rio Preto do Igapo-Acu with fusiform pseudobulbs carrying oblanceolate, plicate leaves that blooms in the fall on a basal, suberect, racemose, 10" [26 cm] long, several [11 to 14] flowered inflorescence arising on a newly matured pseudobulb carrying longer lasting flowers than normal for this genus.

Give a very short rest period with humid conditions year round with light to moderate shade.

 

Source:  http://www.orchidspecies.com/catkleb.htm

 

 

Friday, 15 February 2019 03:15

Catasetum Mary Spencer

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Catasetum Mary Spencer

Catasetum socco × Catasetum pileatum

 

 

Friday, 15 February 2019 03:17

Catasetum Orchidglade

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Catasetum Orchidglade

Catasetum pileatum × Catasetum expansum

 

Catasetum Orchidglade

Jones & Scully 1974 - registered (RHS)

Catasetum pileatum × Catasetum expansum

 

Catasetum pileatum

 

Common Name The Felt-Capped Catasetum

Flower Size more than 4" [to more than 10 cm]

This large sized, hot growing epiphytic species comes from Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador in lowland forest at elevations around 100 to 200 meters with tropical conditions with a long wet period and a short dry season with clustered, fusiform-ovoid, several noded pseudobulbs that are enveloped by several leaf bearing sheaths carrying distichous, lanceolate, suberect, plicate leaves and blooms in the spring through fall on a basal, erect to pendant, 12" [30 cm] long, several to many [4 to 10] flowered, racemose inflorescence carrying fragrant flowers that open very flat and arise on a mature pseudobulb.

Venezuela made this their national flower until 1921 when it was changed to Cattlaya mossiae var wagnerii.

 

Source:  http://www.orchidspecies.com/catpileatum.htm

 

 

Thursday, 03 December 2015 20:45

Catasetum Plant Culture

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The cultural information below is a generalization and will apply in most situations; however each grower and growing environment is different. I encourage you to make adjustments based on your experience and growing conditions.

Catasetinae have a distinctive growth and rest period (dormancy). For best plant growth it is important to understand and respect these growth phases. When the plants are in active growth maintain constant root zone moisture and fertilize regularly. This is essential to optimizing the development of new growth. When the plants are dormant little or no water is needed as the pseudobulbs store enough moisture and nutrients to survive the dormancy.

Catasetinae plant culture is not difficult. All it takes is an understanding of the seasonal growth patterns. The plants vegetative state signals to the grower their changing needs. Interpret the signals and make the appropriate cultural adjustments. Here is what to look for:

Tuesday, 12 February 2019 20:50

Catasetum Portagee Star

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Catasetum Portagee Star

Catasetum pileatum × Catasetum Black Knight

 

Catasetum Portagee Star

F.Dishman 2002 - registered (RHS)

Catasetum pileatum × Catasetum Black Knight

 

 

Catasetum saccatum

 

Common Name The Sack-Shaped Catasetum

Flower Size 4" [9 to 10 cm]

 

Found as a large sized, variable, caespitose, hot to cool growing epiphyte in Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil in tropical montane forests on many different types of trees at altitudes of 200 to 1700 meters, with fusiform, elongate pseudobulbs with 4 to 7 elliptic-lanceolate, petiolate, acute leaves that blooms from the early winter through spring on an erect or pendant, 8" to 16" [25 to 68 cm] long, loose to many [3 to 21] flowered, bracteate, racemose inflorescence carrying fragrant flowers arising on a nearly mature pseudobulb

Like most Catasetum, needs a definite rest period after the blooming season when it will drop its leaves. The flowers are different in that they can eject their pollina up to 8 ft from the plant. This species enjoys nearly full sunlight, warmth, plenty of water and fertilizer and only needs a rest if it has become obviously dormant.

See also Catasetum incurvum which is often cited as a synonym of C saccatum but has sufficient differences to be kept a species in it's own right. Tthey differ in the size of the flowers, the lip and the densly flowered inflorescence.

 

Source: http://www.orchidspecies.com/catasetumsacatum.htm

 

 

Catasetum socco

 

Common Name The Sock Catasetum?


Found in southern & southestern Brazil

 

Friday, 15 February 2019 03:12

Catasetum Susan Fuchs

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Catasetum Susan Fuchs

Catasetum expansum × Catasetum Orchidglade

 

Catasetum Susan Fuchs

R.F.Orchids 1982 - registered (RHS)

Catasetum expansum × Catasetum Orchidglade

 

Catasetum Susan Fuchs 'Sunrise' JC AOS   Photo courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids

 

Catasetum tenebrosum

 

Common Name The Dark-Brown Catasetum

Flower Size 1 1/4" [3 cm]

A medium sized, warm to cool growing epiphytic or lithophytic species from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru found at elevations of 500 to 1800 meters in riverine forests on hilly terrain in full sun or on rocks and boulders below them with spindle-shaped, several noded pseudobulbs enveloped basally by several, distichous, foliaceous sheaths carrying 6 to 8, thin, plicate, lanceolate leaves that blooms from the spring till fall from the basal nodes, on a suberect, 8" [20 cm] long, several to many [4 to 12] flowered, racemose inflorescence that arises from a newly forming pseudobulb carrying 3 to 8 female flowers or 11 to 17 male flowers.

This species needs to be in light to moderate shade to insure male flowers and kept drier but does not require a prolonged rest.

Synonyms Catasetum tenebrosum f. smaragdinum D.E.Benn., Christenson & Collantes 1999

Source:  http://www.orchidspecies.com/cattenebrosa.htm

 

Thursday, 03 December 2015 18:41

Culture of Catasetinae (Catasetum)

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The Sub-tribe Catasetinae includes the Genera Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria, and Mormodes. Culture of Dressleria even though once included in the genus Catasetum is different. Do not try to grow Dressleria species using these suggestions.

The plants of Tribe Catasetinae are widespread in lowland tropical areas of South and Central America up to elevations of about 1200-1500 meters. Most of the discussion which follows pertains particularly to Catasetum a genus with 80-120 species. The plants can generally be found growing on trees, tree stumps, or old fence posts. The plants are weedy and tend to be fairly abundant once you find the first plant or plants.

Thursday, 03 December 2015 15:54

General Culture Sheet (AOS)

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Thursday, 03 December 2015 19:21

Stephen's Catasetinae Culture (Catasetum)

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Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, and Mormodes are the primary genera that compose the catasetinae.  They can be grown easily without the necessity of a greenhouse. They can grow in just about every kind of medium that you can imagine.  Here's how Stephen grows his catasetums.

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